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Science of Horticulture
February 15, 2023
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Gum caused byPhytophthorasp. affecting the roots, stem and fruit of citrus fruits. This review gives a systematic and updated overview of the treatment of isolation, different detection methods, sources of resistance, the interaction ofPhytophthorawith citrus fruits and their pathogenicity mechanism, biotechnological tools such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping, gene expression, gene editing, cloning and transformation to manage thePhytophthoraIllness. Treatment of this challenging disease requires the development of new knowledge and methods about the pathogen and its interaction with its host. We reviewed detection methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immuno Detection Test and Loop-Mediated Isotherm Amplification. The keyPhytophthora- Citrus interactions reported in the cited literature are effector molecule interaction, the role of R-proteins, hypersensitivity reactions and expression of the defense-related genes. Furthermore, we also explained the role of modern biotechnological techniques in accelerating the selection of tolerant/resistant parents for the breeding program, namely generation of transgenic plants, mapped genomic localization of QTL, gene transfer, candidate genes, CRISPR/Cas9, comparative transcriptomics analysis and metabolomics . Biotechnological techniques will contribute to the development ofPhytophthoraResistance stocks that gratefully contribute to effective disease management and ultimately minimize the use of fungicides by citrus growers.
Of all fruit crops, citrus fruits are one of the best and most widely grown in the world. The production of citrus fruits is of great importance to the economy at national and regional levels and ultimately meets human nutritional needs in developing countries (Gmitterand Hu, 1990; Singhetal., 2021a). The production and export of citrus fruits has increased gradually over the past three decades, but at a slower pace than competing fruit crops, namely avocados, mangoes and melon fruits (FAOSTAT, 2022). Fungal diseases are the most common biotic factors that seriously endanger crops (Döhlemannental., 2017). Approximately 8,000 species of fungi and oomycetes have been associated with plant diseases (Horst, 2013; Fisher et al., 2020).Phytophthorasp. causes soil and waterborne diseases of Citrus spp, which is one of the most widespread and devastating diseases (Narayanasamy, 2011; Feichtenberger, 2001; Graham and Menge, 1999, 2000; Feichtenberger et al., 2005).
To maintain food security and security, the growing world population requires systematic crop disease control strategies in agriculture (FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, WHO 2018, Sarrocco and Vannacci, 2018). Citrus fruits are an important part of a healthy and balanced diet (Cakar,2018). To control phytopathogenic fungi, an effective and efficient early detection and rapid response strategy is required (Sankaranetal., 2010; Nagraleetal., 2016). In the area of citriculture protection, diagnosisPhytophthoraRoot rot is crucial as it helps improve citrus production. In addition, some further developments were made on the subject of phytopathogenic fungal diagnostics. Traditional methods of diagnosing fungal diseases have relied on visual evidencePhytophthoraB. chlamydospores, oospores, sporangia or mycelia on seedlings, mature plants or fruits induced by fungal disease symptomsPhytophthoraafter infection (Nezhad, 2014; Thomaset., 2016). These methods are used extensively in the diagnosis ofPhytophthoraIllness. Baiting, isolation and culturing, microscopic techniques for oospores or chlamydospores and biochemical testing are some of the most commonly used conventional methods, but they have some disadvantages as these methods are time consuming and require prior knowledge and great experience in fungal pathology and taxonomy (Naqvi, 2000 ; Laneet al., 2007; Jung, 2009; Dase t. .
The antigen-antibody binding concept underpins immunological diagnostic approaches (Wilsone et al., 2000). However, there are a number of problems including low sensitivity and affinity in diagnosis and the possibility of contamination from other fungal species (McDonaldetal., 1990; Mengand Doyle, 2002). IdentifyPhytophthorasp. was also difficult because of significant inconsistency and phenotypic serological flexibility of fungi (Laneetal., 2007; Luchietal., 2020). To prevent root rot diseases, it is imperative to establish and develop unique and effective diagnostic procedures. Therefore, molecular approaches for pathogen identification and quantification in plant-fungal diagnostics have become established and can overcome the problems of serological as well as traditional approaches (Schenaetal., 2008; Limaetal., 2018; Dalioetal., 2018).
For plant-infecting fungi, modern advances employ high-throughput molecular detection methods. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Vicelliand Tisserat, 2008), real-time PCR (Ahmede tal., 2019; Hou et al., 2013, Van Gent-Pelzer et al., 2007), nested PCR (Mostowfizadeh, 2012; Meyer etal., 2012) and Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) (Leand Vu, 2017; Pannoetal., 2020; Uysaland Kurt, 2020; Driciruetal., 2021) are examples of these methods. DNA-based molecular approaches with higher reliability, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity enable the identification of plant pathogens at early stages of infection, even when DNA amounts are low (Midorikawaetal., 2018; Capoteetal., 2012; Luchietal., 2013; Rollinsetal ., 2016).
Recently developed molecular technology has been used extensively to study the interaction between plant pathogen and its defense mechanism.Phytophthorasp. are the main cause of the decline of citrus, a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen that preferentially interacts with citrus rhizomes identified as both susceptible and resistantPhytophthorasp. The molecular mechanism behind the plant-fungus interaction is still unknown (Dalioetal., 2018; Giesbrechtetal., 2011; Kamounetal., 2015; Obwaldetal., 2014; Lyonsetal., 2013; Rodriguesetal., 2013; Boavaetal., 2011a; Vlotetal ., 2009; Dempsey et al., 2011; Diazand Nelly, 2012; Rosa et al., 2007; Ockelset et al., 2007; O'Donnelle et al., 2003). be useful for breeding resistance to citrus diseases (Sunetal., 2019; Casertaetal., 2019; Singhand Rajam, 2009; Singh et al., 2020c, Singh et al., 2020b, Singh et al., 2020a). The focus of this article is to build on current advances in the practical application of genetic engineering and genome editing technologiesPhytophthoratolerant citrus varieties.
Genomic tools can be used for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), and transcriptomics is used for differential gene expression analysis (Limae tal., 2018; Jansen and Nap, 2001; Siviero et al., 2006). The analysis of QTLs and eQTLs is of great importance for understanding host-pathogen interactions, disease resistance and response mechanisms (Dalioetal., 2018; Boavaetal., 2011a; Ajenguietal., 2008; Maximoetal., 2017; Boavaetal., 2011b; Yanetal . , 2017). citrusPhytophthoraDisease tolerance to rootstocks and sprouts have been engineered using genetic engineering techniques (Sunetal., 2019). Methods based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have recently made genome editing a crucial genetic manipulation tool in several other citrus diseasesPhytophthoraWurzelfäule (Sunetal., 2019; Wangetal., 2019; Jiaand Wang, 2014; Jiaetal., 2017, 2019; LeBlancetal., 2018; Jiaetal., 2016).
This systematic review addresses the symptomology, disease cycle, conventional and modern biotechnological diagnostic strategies to improve disease resistance in the genetic background of citrus fruits. The aim is to give a molecular based updatePhytophthoraDiseases and diagnostics as a first step to develop or improve integrated and long-term treatment methods. Rather, we investigatedPhytophthoraDisease for which we have current research programs to offer readers both basic information and the latest research.
Gum caused byPhytophthorasp. has a global distribution and is responsible for 10.0 to 30.0% of citrus losses worldwide (Timmeretal., 2000). The ideal circumstances for the proliferation ofPhytophthoraInfections and diseases involve high temperatures combined with high air and soil moisture (Timmeretal., 2000; Matheronand Matejka, 1992). In Kenya, the disease was found in 79.0% of plantations, with a high frequency at low altitude sites. Kilifi District, which is the main Agri export zone
Phytophthorasp. likeP. nicotianae, P. palmivora, andP. citrophthoraare responsible for foot rot, crown rot, and root rot in Tough Lemon (C.jambhiri), which is the most common rootstock in northern India. Nagpur tangerine is more prone toPhytophthoraRoot rot, foot rot and leaf fall in Central India (Naqvi, 2000, 1988; Naqviand Singh, 2002; Naqvi, 2002). In a 1987 evaluation of nurseries in Florida, 15 out of eight field nurseries were found to be contaminatedP. parasitica, while only 13 out
disease cycle ofPhytophthora
The formation of sporangia, which produce enormous numbers of zoospores, chlamydospores and oospores, starts the disease cycle fromPhytophthorasp. Given enough time and the right circumstances, zoospores cyst and germinate to form mycelia. The ideal temperature for mycelium development is between 86 and 90˚F. Small water potential deficits of the matrix (-5 to -70 KPa) favor the formation of sporangia, while saturated circumstances do not, unless sporangia are produced on citrus root parts (
In this review article, we reviewed the conventional and PCR-based techniques for detectionPhytophthoraDisease, namely Bait, Isolation, Based on DNA Test, Immunological Test, LAMP (Loop-Mediated Isotherm Amplification), etc. The factors affecting the working efficiency of various techniques and their comparison forPhytophthoraEvidence by soil, water and plant sampling are discussed in this article.
interaction ofPhytophthorawith citrus, pathogenicity mechanism and its resistance
InPhytophthora- Interactions with citrus fruits to which host plants have been shown to respondPhytophthoraCorneal deposition infection (Giesbrechte et al., 2011; O'Donnelle et al., 2003). Callose layers can encapsulate hyphae in resistant plant species, a process mediated by a cell's plasma membrane. Changes in the levels of phenolic compounds in the phloem, such as tyrosol and gallic acid, may be relatedPhytophthorasp. Establishment of resistance (Ockelsetal., 2007). Some citrus
Biocontrol agents and fungicides against itPhytophthora
Moayediand Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa (2011) assessed the antagonistic properties in IranTrichodermasp. were used for controlPhytophthoraspp.-induced sugar beet root rot.TrichodermaSamples were taken from sugar beet fields in Faris province for isolation. Samples were taken from an infested field for isolationPhytophthoraspp.S. CryptogeaandP. Drechsleriwere isolated. These pathogens were tested with eight different types of biocontrol agents. The capacity of different
Genetic resources available for the introgression ofPhytophthoraResistance/tolerance to elite rungs/underlay
Pathogens are believed to be the source of numerous devastating unexplained diseases, although research in this area is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanismPhytophthoraDisease management (Timmer et al., 2000; Young et al., 1982; Derrick and Timmer, 2000). The resistance or tolerance of pathogens varies greatly between rootstocks. However, the information is insufficient or relates only to local pathogen isolates or biotypes in which the research was conducted. Multiple releases (
Biotechnological interventions to treat fungal diseases incitrus
Citriculture is threatened by a number of diseases, which can be controlled primarily by the application of chemicals during crop development after harvest, making management less environmentally friendly. Customers, on the other hand, are demanding high-quality, durable goods and are putting pressure on agriculture to produce sustainably. In this situation, the citrus economy must find new ways to meet these needs. Although traditional breeding efforts have had some success over time, but the
Role of next-generation sequencing technology inPhytophthoraResistance
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) or high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is a novel diagnostic method. The advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has led to new methods for the detection and identification of phytopathogens (Chalupowiczetal., 2019; Qin, 2019). Massively parallel signature sequencing, pyrosequencing, polony sequencing, and SOLID (sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation detection) are all examples of sophisticated sequencing technologies used in HTS (Rajeshand Jaya, 2017
Conclusion and future outlook
New technologies, particularly at the genome level, are becoming available and cheaper, which is encouraging for plant and pathogen research. However, to efficiently breed for resistancePhytophthorasp. requires a combination of techniques and coordinated efforts by scientists worldwide. Understanding and Managing the CitrusPhytophthoraSystem is likely to benefit in other complicated host-pathogen systems and improve our chances of developing long-term management solutions.
Author's statement of contribution
The idea of developing a comprehensive overview was developed by Popat Nanaso Gaikwad, Jagveer Singh, Vishal Sharma and Gurupkar Singh Sidhu. The search strategy, text organization, tables and figures were developed by Popat Nanaso Gaikwad, Jagveer Singh, Vishal Sharma and Harpreet Singh. The proposed draft text was developed into an article by Popat Nanaso Gaikwad, Jagveer Singh, Vishal Sharma and Harpreet Singh. The editing process was done by Gurupkar Singh Sidhu, Jagveer
Declaration of Competing Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in publishing this review.
The authors thank Dr. Gurdev Singh Khush, Laboratories, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Financial support from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India through the project entitled “Mapping ofPhytophthoraResistance in intergeneric rootstock populations and development of improved rootstocks in citrus” (BT/PR32770/AGIII/103/1153/2019/18.12.2019) is duly acknowledged.
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Featured Articles (6)
research articleIrrigating protected pepper crops by growth stage using dynamic evapotranspiration estimates increases water use efficiency
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111768(Video) Could plants help treat macular disease
Current knowledge about watering plants in greenhouses is limited and most irrigation measures are based on evapotranspiration (ET) estimated using external climatic conditions. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith (PM) model's estimation of plant water demand assumes complete soil coverage by plants and does not typically account for partial coverage, which changes during the growth of annual plants. The main objectives of the present research were: (i) the development and application of estimates of irrigation needs for greenhouse pepper crops during their growth based on internal meteorological conditions and real-time plant characteristics; and (ii) to study the impact of this irrigation on yield. The experiments were conducted in two consecutive seasons in greenhouse pepper crops in the Jordan Valley region of eastern Israel. Four irrigation treatments were applied based on four different ET models: (i) PM model for external reference evapotranspiration based on FAO56 methodology, also referred to as commercial treatment; (ii) PMrb model for pepper plants, which is a standard PM model in which boundary layer drag replaces aerodynamic drag; (iii) Shuttleworth-Wallace Layer (SWL) model which considers soil and plants as separate interactive layers; (iv) Shuttleworth-Wallace Patch (SWP) model considering soil and plants as independent patches. The commercial treatment used external climatic conditions from a nearby meteorological station, while the other three treatments used internal meteorological conditions measured inside the greenhouse. The results showed a high correlation (R2> 0.88) between leaf area index, vegetation cover percentage and plant height during plant growth. Using the same greenhouse meteorological conditions, the seasonal ET estimated by the PMrb model, which accounts for full vegetation cover, was 21-28% larger than the SWL and SWP models, which accounts for partial plant cover. Irrigation doses were derived from ET multiplied by crop coefficients derived in a previous study for the same crop and structures. Using average data from the two seasons, we found that seasonal irrigation based on the two SW models was 5-15% lower than that based on PMrb and 35-42% lower than commercial irrigation. The water use efficiency of the commercial treatment was the lowest while it was about 0.02 ton m for the other treatments-3and about 40% higher than retail. We conclude that irrigating annual crops based on splitting ET into evaporation and transpiration based on crop cover and utilizing internal climatic conditions allows for water savings without significant yield loss.
research articleDetermination of pitaya quality using portable NIR spectroscopy and innovative low-cost electronic nose
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111784
Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus), also known as dragon fruit, is an exotic and prized fruit high in fiber and vitamins, the quality of which is often related to attributes such as soluble solids, moisture content, and acidity. Traditional analysis techniques (e.g. gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry - GC-MS) for physico-chemical quantification are expensive and not environmentally friendly. This work proposes a rapid and non-destructive assessment of pitaya quality using inexpensive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electronic noses (E-Nose). Classification models using either NIR spectra or E-Nose data as predictors demonstrated greater than 90% accuracy in classifying samples by their durability index level (SLI30, 50, 80 and 100). Total titratable acidity (TA) and pH could be estimated using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and NIR spectra as predictors with a coefficient of determination (R2P) of 0.89 and 0.83, and root mean square error (RMSEP) of 0.03 and 0.23, respectively. Similarly, PLSR models for predicting TA and pH were achieved using E-nose dataR2Pof 0.85 and 0.86 and RMSEP of 0.04 and 0.22, respectively. RPD and RER values for NIRS show that all predictors can be used to at least distinguish between low and high values. The results show that low-cost NIRS-based devices and a novel low-cost E-Nose could be used in combination to predict TSS, pH, TA, moisture and phenols, and to classify pitaya by shelf life. stages of life.
research articleExploring Graft Incompatibility Markers: Intraspecific and Interspecific Grafts of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111762
Grafting is an innovative and cost-effective technique commonly used in nightshade crops such as tomatoes (Solanum-Tomato L.). However, the incompatibility limits the far-reaching grafting approaches in sustainable food production worldwide. Early and precise detection of slip intolerance is of great importance, since slip compatibility between rootstock and scion is a prerequisite for successful grafting. The current study examined graft incompatibility in tomato autografts (Roma tomato to Roma tomato), intraspecific transplantation (Roma tomato to superred tomato) and interspecific transplantation (Roma tomato to eggplant and pepper plant) at 4, 8 and 8 16 DAG (days post-transplant) to study physiological, biochemical and metabolic changes at the graft junction that could be used as markers for graft incompatibility. The results showed that intraspecific grafts among the grafted combinations exhibited strong resistance to oxidative damage from low hydrogen peroxide accumulation, minimal membrane permeability, and lipid peroxidation coupled with high antioxidant activity compared to other grafted combinations, while interspecific grafts with low survival rates showed high accumulation of Total phenol and flavonoid content showed in all three grafting stages (4, 8 and 16 DAG). During histological studies of graft junctions, an apparently long area of adhesion at the graft junction of autografts and intraspecific grafts was observed, while interspecific grafts show a small line of adhesion. These structural, physiological, and metabolic variations can regulate incompatibility and serve as markers for early detection of graft incompatibility. These findings may further aid in the development of molecular-level markers valuable for rootstock development programs.
research articleDevelopment of KASP molecular markers associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in peppers
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111760
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) andFertility Restorer(Rf) breeding systems can reduce the cost of producing F1Hybrid seeds in crop plants. However, the cultivation of the restorer lines is not easy and can be assigned to the current molecular markersRfThe gene is not very versatile as different genes regulate recovery. In this study, 11 SNPs were identified in the previous oneRfGene mapping regions near the 3' end of pepper chromosome 6 were used to develop the molecular markers of competitive allele-specific PCR (KASP). The results indicated that KS23 was suggested to refer to theRfGenes with restoring genotype A/A and conserving genotype G/G. There was 91.6% concordance for KS23 between the genotyping results in F2individuals. In addition, the accuracy of KS23 reached 100% among six restorer lines and 67.8% among 44 inbred lines in universality. These results provided an efficient and labor-saving KASP markerRf, which will be beneficial for breeding restorer lines and the usefulness of the CMS/Rf system in the production of F1Hybridsamen in Pfeffer.
research articleEffect of Enterobacter sp. EG16 for selenium biofortification and speciation in bok choy (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111723
The use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase Se uptake and accumulation in crops is a promising recent approach to biofortification. However, most studies have focused on a specific dose of PGPR or Se, while the synergistic effects of simultaneously changing the concentration of both exogenous Se and PGPR on plant growth and Se bioaccumulation are rarely examined. In this study, the combined treatments of 0-2 mg L−1Se and (3.83-11.3)×107KBE ml−1PGPR strainEnterobacter sp.EG16 were used for the hydroponic experiments of pak choi (Brassica rapa) to study the mutual effects on plant growth and Se uptake. The growth of pak choi in terms of plant height, number of leaves and root tips was promoted by the combination of 7.65 × 107KBE ml−1EG16 and no more than 1 mg L−1by Se Growth was significantly inhibited when the concentration of EG16 was increased to 11.3x107KBE ml−1. Chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were also enhanced under the same combination of Se and EG16 concentrations. In addition, the Se content of aboveground plant parts and intact plants increased significantly with increasing concentrations of EG16 and Se. Selenomethionine (SeMet), methylselenocysteine (SeMeCys), and selenocystine (SeCys2) were the main organo-Se compounds detected in bok choy, accounting for almost 90% when supplied with selenite. Among these compounds, SeMet accounted for a high percentage and SeCys2 for a relatively low percentage in most treatments. The two forms were inversely related, probably because the transformation was driven by EG16. On the other hand, the SeMeCys fraction was significantly affected by different concentrations of exogenous Se and EG16. Selenate was also detected, indicating selenite oxidation. In terms of both plant biomass and nutrient quality, the combined formulation of 1 mg L−1Se and 7.65×107KBE ml−1of EG16 is a promising agent for the production of Se-enriched vegetables.
research articleModulation of non-target phytotoxicity of glyphosate by soil organic matter in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).
Horticultural Science, Volume 310, 2023, Item 111773
Glyphosate (GLY)-based herbicides are the most commonly used, and while it is acknowledged that GLY is rapidly degraded on contact with soil, recent studies show that the accumulation of its residues in soil can inhibit the growth of non-target crops. Knowing that soil properties such as organic matter (OM) content affect the bioavailability of pesticides, this study aimed to determine the role of soil OM in preventing GLY phytotoxicity using tomatoes (Solanum-TomatoL.) as a model cultivar. For this purpose, plants grew for 28 days in soils with different concentrations of OM [2.5; 5.0; 10 and 15% (m/m)] contaminated or not with GLY (10 mgkg−1). Then biometric parameters, oxidative stress markers [lipid peroxidation (LP); hydrogen peroxide (H2Ö2); proline] and several physiological indicators [total sugars, amino acids and soluble proteins; glutamine synthetase (GS) and nitrate reductase (NR)] were evaluated. According to the results, GLY significantly reduced plant growth in all tested soils, especially in those with lower OM content (2.5 and 5.0%), as evidenced by an increase in LP in shoots and proline in shoots and roots, and a decrease in Total sugar in both organs. In contrast, GLY exposure of plants in OM-enriched soils (10 and 15%) did not significantly alter cellular redox status, while contributing to higher levels of total amino acids in shoots. Endpoints related to nitrogen (N) metabolism were not significantly affected by GLY independent of soil OM. Overall, the results seem to indicate that soils with a higher OM content, 10 and 15%, can attenuate non-target phytotoxicity of GLY, possibly by reducing herbicide bioavailability and/or by stimulating defense mechanisms, thereby reducing plant growth and improve physiological performance.(Video) Plant Disease Management Lecture
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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